Nature versus nurture Although developmental change runs parallel with chronological age,  age itself cannot cause development. Environmental factors affecting development may include both diet and disease exposure, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive experiences. Plasticity of this type can occur throughout the lifespan and may involve many kinds of behavior, including some emotional reactions.
Nature versus nurture Although developmental change runs parallel with chronological age,  age itself cannot cause development. Environmental factors affecting development may include both diet and disease exposure, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive experiences.
Plasticity of this type can occur throughout the lifespan and may involve many kinds of behavior, including some emotional reactions. Genetic-environmental correlations are circumstances in which genetic factors make certain experiences more likely to occur.
In all of these cases, it becomes difficult to know whether child characteristics were shaped by genetic factors, by experiences, or by a combination of the two. What relevant aspects of the individual change over a period of time? What are the rate and speed of development?
What are the mechanisms of development — what aspects of experience and heredity cause developmental change? Are there typical individual differences in the relevant developmental changes?
Are there population differences in this aspect of development for example, differences in the development of boys and of girls? Empirical research that attempts to answer these questions may follow a number of patterns. Initially, observational research in naturalistic conditions may be needed to develop a narrative describing and defining an aspect of developmental change, such as changes in reflex reactions in the first year.
Such studies examine the characteristics of children at different ages. Some child development studies examine the effects of experience or heredity by comparing characteristics of different groups of children in a necessarily non-randomized design.
Child development stages Milestones are changes in specific physical and mental abilities such as walking and understanding language that mark the end of one developmental period and the beginning of another. Studies of the accomplishment of many developmental tasks have established typical chronological ages associated with developmental milestones.
However, there is considerable variation in the achievement of milestones, even between children with developmental trajectories within the typical range. Some milestones are more variable than others; for example, receptive speech indicators do not show much variation among children with typical hearing, but expressive speech milestones can be quite variable.
Prevention of and early intervention in developmental delay are significant topics in the study of child development. Increased knowledge of age-specific milestones allows parents and others to keep track of appropriate development. Here are descriptions of the development of a number of physical and mental characteristics.
Speed and pattern[ edit ] The speed of physical growth is rapid in the months after birth, then slows, so birth weight is doubled in the first four months, tripled by age 12 months, but not quadrupled until 24 months.
At birth, head size is already relatively near to that of an adult, but the lower parts of the body are much smaller than adult size. In the course of development, then, the head grows relatively little, and torso and limbs undergo a great deal of growth. However, genetic factors can produce the maximum growth only if environmental conditions are adequate.
Some of these differences are due to family genetic factors, others to environmental factors, but at some points in development they may be strongly influenced by individual differences in reproductive maturation.
Motor[ edit ] A child learning to walk Abilities for physical movement change through childhood from the largely reflexive unlearned, involuntary movement patterns of the young infant to the highly skilled voluntary movements characteristic of later childhood and adolescence. Definition[ edit ] "Motor learning refers to the increasing spatial and temporal accuracy of movements with practice".
Speed and pattern[ edit ] The speed of motor development is rapid in early life, as many of the reflexes of the newborn alter or disappear within the first year, and slows later. Like physical growth, motor development shows predictable patterns of cephalocaudal head to foot and proximodistal torso to extremities development, with movements at the head and in the more central areas coming under control before those of the lower part of the body or the hands and feet.The domains of child development and early learning are discussed in different terms and categorized in different ways in the various fields and disciplines that are involved in research, practice, and policy related to children from birth through age 8.
To organize the discussion in this report, the committee elected to use the approach and overarching terms depicted in Figure Piaget's theory of cognitive development helped add to our understanding of children's intellectual growth. It also stressed that children were not merely passive recipients of knowledge.
Instead, kids are constantly investigating and experimenting as they build their understanding of how the world works. Child development entails the biological, he developed his own laboratory and spent years recording children's intellectual growth and attempted to find out how children develop through various stages of thinking.
During this stage of development, young children . Rather, we rely on theories, such as Piaget's stages of cognitive development, Erickson's psychosocial stages, and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model to give us a way to understand and to measure children's mental and social development and progression.
Intellectual development measures how individuals learn to think and reason for themselves in relation to the world around them.
Intellectual development starts early from the time a child is born. As a child grows, intellectual development continues whether it's evident or not.
It's important to foster intellectual development all throughout life. A Discussion on Intellectual Development of Young Children PAGES 3. WORDS 1, View Full Essay. More essays like this: Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed.
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