See Article History Alternative Title: The status of stalking as a criminal offense is relatively new, having emerged in the early s, although the behaviours that characterize stalking are not. History of stalking What is today called stalking was assigned different names in the past. During the early 20th century, for example, psychiatrists used the term erotomania to describe the delusion of being loved by someone, often a prominent or even famous person.
See Article History Alternative Titles: The term, coined in by the American criminologist Edwin Sutherlanddrew attention to the typical attire of the perpetrators, who were generally businesspeople, high-ranking professionals, and politicians. Moreover, developments in commerce and technology have broadened the scope of white-collar crime to include cybercrime computer crimehealth-care fraud, and intellectual property crimes, in addition to more-traditional crimes involving embezzlementbriberyconspiracyobstruction of justiceperjurymoney laundering, antitrust violations, tax crimes, and regulatory violations.
Specific examples of activities that constitute white-collar crimes include price collusion conspiring with other corporations to fix the prices of goods or services as a means of obtaining artificially high profits or driving a competitor out of the marketfalsifying reports of tests on pharmaceutical products to obtain manufacturing licenses, and substituting cheap, defective materials for costlier components specified in the construction of roads or buildings but charging the customer for the full cost of the specified materials.
At times such activities can be attributed to individual employees or executives acting on their own initiativebut it is often the case that they represent a collective and organized effort by a corporation to increase its profits at any cost.
White-collar crime that is part of a collective and organized effort to serve the economic interests of a corporation is known as corporate crime.
In some cases corporate crimes are conducted by bogus entities that pose as legal corporations or partnerships. Although corporations cannot be incarcerated, they can be criminally punished with fines and other sanctions.
Common characteristics Although white-collar crimes are quite varied, most have several characteristics in common. First, they involve the use of deceit and concealment, rather than the application of force or violence, for the illegitimate gain of money, property, or services. A defendant convicted of making false statements in order to obtain a government contract, for example, is considered a white-collar criminal.
Next, white-collar crimes typically involve abuse of positions of trust and power. Public officials who solicit and accept bribes, or corporate officers who fix prices to drive competitors out of business, are engaging in such abuse of their positions.
White-collar crime is also often more difficult to detect than other types of crime, in part because losses may not be immediately apparent to victims but also because the crimes can involve sophisticated schemes and cover-ups.
Many white-collar crimes require concerted criminal activity by coconspirators. For example, a case of real-estate fraud may involve the knowing participation of an escrow officer, a buyer, an appraiser, and a bank officer, all of whom were willing to sign false documents to perpetrate a fraud for personal gain.
Fraudthe most common type of white-collar crime, involves obtaining money or services by making false representations or promises.
The key question in these cases is ordinarily whether the defendant intended to deceive the victims or merely failed in an honest business venture. One of the most common types of fraud involves telemarketing schemes that misrepresent the value, the terms of sale, or the use of the goods or services being sold.
Perjuryobstruction of justicefalse statements, and witness tampering are also considered white-collar crimes. Although the goal is not necessarily to obtain money or services, these crimes are illegal because they interfere with the proper functioning of the justice system.
Bribery and extortion are more general, in that they constitute illegal means of influencing persons in power in public or private institutions. Extortion is a threat made to obtain a benefit from either a public official or a private individual.
Money laundering is a relatively new type of white-collar crime that is utilized by criminals wishing to conceal profits gained through illegal activities.
Drug dealers and purveyors of counterfeit goods and currencies will create money-laundering schemes to hide the source of their earnings.
A wide variety of regulatory offenses are also considered to be white-collar crimes.
These may include violation of tax laws, avoidance of currency-reporting requirements, securities violations, and environmental crimes. In addition to criminal punishment, those convicted of regulatory violations may also be subject to civil and administrative penalties.
Such violations, unlike common-law crimes, may not require any criminal intent by the defendant. Computer crimes represent one means by which white-collar criminals exploit technology.
Common examples cover a wide variety of criminal activity, including using a computer as a mechanism for committing securities fraud, credit-card fraud, and identity theft.Recruitment follows the introduction of tougher laws and more aggressive regulation.
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A listing of reports and publications pertaining to stats and services within various FBI programs. Journal of Management and Marketing Research The Impact of Crime on Business, Page 2 Introduction Economic cycles indicate . A listing of reports and publications pertaining to stats and services within various FBI programs.
Definições no mundo. A moderna criminologia, em geral, rejeita a limitação do termo com referência ao tipo de crime e a seu objeto. O tema, atualmente, assim se divide.