Storming of the Bastille in The reign of Louis XVI — saw a temporary revival of French fortunes, but the over-ambitious projects and military campaigns of the 18th century had produced chronic financial problems. Deteriorating economic conditions, popular resentment against the complicated system of privileges granted the nobility and clerics, and a lack of alternate avenues for change were among the principal causes for convoking the Estates-General which convened in Versailles in They proceeded to do so, and then voted a measure far more radical, declaring themselves the National Assemblyan assembly not of the Estates but of "the People".
The Industrial Revolution made our lives easier, but did it make them better? The main features involved in the Industrial Revolution were technological, socioeconomic, and cultural. The technological changes included the following: These technological changes made possible a tremendously increased use of natural resources and the mass production of manufactured goods.
There were also many new developments in nonindustrial spheres, including the following: Workers acquired new and distinctive skills, and their relation to their tasks shifted; instead of being craftsmen working with hand toolsthey became machine operators, subject to factory discipline.
Finally, there was a psychological change: Aware of their head start, the British forbade the export of machinery, skilled workers, and manufacturing techniques. The British monopoly could not last forever, especially since some Britons saw profitable industrial opportunities abroad, while continental European businessmen sought to lure British know-how to their countries.
Like its British progenitor, the Belgian Industrial Revolution centred in iron, coal, and textiles. France was more slowly and less thoroughly industrialized than either Britain or Belgium. While Britain was establishing its industrial leadership, France was immersed in its Revolutionand the uncertain political situation discouraged large investments in industrial innovations.
By France had become an industrial power, but, despite great growth under the Second Empireit remained behind Britain. Other European countries lagged far behind. Their bourgeoisie lacked the wealth, power, and opportunities of their British, French, and Belgian counterparts.
Political conditions in the other nations also hindered industrial expansion. Germanyfor example, despite vast resources of coal and iron, did not begin its industrial expansion until after national unity was achieved in The rise of U. And Japan too joined the Industrial Revolution with striking success.
It was not until the five-year plans that the Soviet Union became a major industrial power, telescoping into a few decades the industrialization that had taken a century and a half in Britain.
The midth century witnessed the spread of the Industrial Revolution into hitherto nonindustrialized areas such as China and India. In terms of basic materials, modern industry began to exploit many natural and synthetic resources not hitherto utilized: Combined with these were developments in machinestoolsand computers that gave rise to the automatic factory.
Although some segments of industry were almost completely mechanized in the early to midth century, automatic operation, as distinct from the assembly linefirst achieved major significance in the second half of the 20th century.
Library of Congress, Washington, D. The oligarchical ownership of the means of production that characterized the Industrial Revolution in the early to midth century gave way to a wider distribution of ownership through purchase of common stocks by individuals and by institutions such as insurance companies.Oct 03, · At the time of the French Revolution, France had expanded to nearly the modern territorial limits.
The 19th century would complete the process by the annexation of the Duchy of Savoy and the city of Nice (first during the First Empire, and then definitively in ) and some small papal (like Avignon) and foreign possessions.
Nov 16, · The French Revolution broke out in , and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades.
World War I began in Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, culture, and diplomacy during the late 19th century. The Age of Revolution is the period from approximately to in which a number of significant revolutionary movements occurred in many parts of Europe and the Americas.
The period is noted for the change in government from absolutist monarchies to constitutionalist states and republics. The Revolutions of , known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history..
The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in . At the time of the French Revolution, France had expanded to nearly the modern territorial limits.
The 19th century would complete the process by the annexation of the Duchy of Savoy and the city of Nice (first during the First Empire, and then definitively in ) and some small papal (like Avignon) and foreign urbanagricultureinitiative.com's territorial limits were greatly extended during .
In dentistry: Dentistry in 19th-century Europe. In English dentist Sir John Tomes led the formation of the first dental organization in England, the Odontological Society.
It was through the activity of this group that the Royal Dental Hospital of London was established in .