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Publications[ edit ] Sincethe Pennsylvania German newspaper Hiwwe wie Driwwe  allows dialect authors of whom there are still about to publish Pennsylvania German poetry and prose.
Hiwwe wie Driwwe was founded by Michael Werner. It is published twice a year 2, copies per issue - since in cooperation with the Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center at Kutztown University. Sincethe newspaper is published both online and in print.
Pennsylvania German instead reflects the independent development of Palatine German, especially from the region that is called Vorderpfalz in German. They only appear as shifts if Standard German is erroneously seen as the basis from which Pennsylvania German evolved.
The correspondence between Standard German and Pennsylvania German occur with a fair degree of regularity. The American English influence is most significant on vocabulary  and to a much lesser degree on pronunciation; the English influence on grammar is relatively small.
The question of whether the large loss of the dative case — the most significant difference compared with Palatine German — is due to English influence or reflects an inner development, is disputed.
Grammar[ edit ] As in Standard German, Pennsylvania German uses three genders masculine, feminine, and neuter.
Pronouns inflect into three or four cases, while in Standard German always four cases. Concerning the article, the nominative and accusative merged, and the dative is mostly lost.
As in all other German dialects[ clarification needed ], the genitive is lost and often replaced by a special construction using the dative and the possessive pronoun: In most regions, the dative has been gradually replaced by the accusative, so that em Mann sei Hund, for example, has frequently become der Mann sei Hund.
Adjectival endings exist, but appear simplified compared to Standard German.
As in all other South German dialects, the past tense is generally expressed using the perfect: Ich bin ins Feld glaafe "I have run into the field" and not the simple past Ich lief ins Feld ["I ran into the field"]which is only retained in the verb "to be", as war or ware, corresponding to English "was" and "were".
The Subjunctive mood is only extant as Konjunktiv I Konjunktiv II is totally lost [ clarification needed ] in a limited number of verbs. Several Pennsylvania German grammars have been published over the years. This section contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering supportyou may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help: The list below appears to use IPA symbols to represent sounds used in Standard German to the leftwith an arrow pointing to a sound found to be[ clarification needed ] at times its Pennsylvania German equivalent.
Following each of these entries is an example of a related word from Standard German, once again with an arrow pointing to its modern Pennsylvania German counterpart.A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Ninth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing).
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Pennsylvania German (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch, listen (help · info); often called Pennsylvania Dutch) is a variety of West Central German spoken by the Old Order Amish, Old Order Mennonites and other descendants of German immigrants in the United States and Canada, closely related to the Palatine urbanagricultureinitiative.com are possibly more than , native speakers in.