Competing approaches Origins Samuel Orton was an American neuro-psychiatrist and pathologist who initially studied adults with brain damage but went on to study children with reading disabilities. He made the startling discovery that children being referred to him as retarded because of their struggle with reading had normal or even above average IQ scores.
It ignores helping emerging readers to recognize what they, as readers, bring to the information on the page. The sequence of processing proceeds from the incoming data to higher level encodings.
If you take a critical approach right from the start of your reading and note taking, it can save a lot of time later on. When you come to write your assignment or thesis, you will need to comment on the validity of the writing that you refer to. Jun 12, · Reading approach also has limitation since there is no single teaching method that is chategorized as the best based on some consideration such as: the curriculum, students’ motivation, financial limitation, number of students, etc. The process approach treats all writing as a creative act which requires time and positive feedback to be done well. In process writing, the teacher moves away from being someone who sets students a writing topic and receives the finished product for correction without any intervention in the writing process itself.
Stanovich, - This model has a tendency to depict the information flow in a series of discrete stages, with each stage transforming the input and then passing the recorded information on to the next higher stage.
It fails to recognize that students utilize their expectations about the text, based on their knowledge of language and how it works.
Two areas of concern: Major increases in reading rate can only follow from extensive reading in the language over time. If a text contains too many difficult words, no strategy top down or bottom up can make such a text accessible to the reader.
However, second language readers do of course encounter some unknown words in most texts. This is the best means of increasing their control of English vocabulary.
SL readers, however, are frequently panicked by unknown words, so they stop reading to look them up in dictionaries, thereby interrupting the normal reading process.
In response to this problem, many SL texts recommend various strategies for guessing the meaning of unknown words from context, by using semantic and syntactic clues or even morphological analysis. In order to develop good reading habits, the best strategy for dealing with an unknown word may well be to keep reading until the meaning of that word begins to make itself plain in relation to the larger context provided.
Good readers process language in the written form of written text without thinking consciously about it, and good SL readers must learn to do so.
It is only this kind of automatic processing which allows the good reader to think instead about the larger meaning of the discourse, which allows for global reading with true comprehension.
Vocabulary development and word recognition have long been recognized as crucial to successful bottom-up decoding skills. However, schema theory has shed new light on the complex nature of the interrelationship of schemata, context, and vocabulary knowledge. UNLIKE traditional views of vocabulary, current thinking converges on the notion that a given word does not have a fixed meaning, but rather a variety of meanings that interact with context and background knowledge.
Knowledge of individual word meanings is strongly associated with conceptual knowledge -- that is, learning vocabulary is also learning the conceptual knowledge associated with the word.
On the one hand, an important part of teaching background knowledge is teaching the vocabulary related to it and, conversely, teaching vocabulary may mean teaching new concepts, new knowledge. Teachers must become aware of the cross-cultural differences in vocabulary and how meaning may be represented differently in the lexicons of various languages.
Several characteristics seem to distinguish effective from ineffective teaching programs. Preteaching vocabulary in order to increase learning from text will be more successful - if the words to be taught are key words in the target passages - if the words are taught in semantically and topically related sets so that word meanings and background knowledge improve concurrently - if the words are taught and learned thoroughly - if both definitional and contextual information are involved - if students engage in deeper processing of word meanings - if only a few words are taught per lesson and per week.
Research specific to SL reading has shown that merely presenting a list of new or unfamiliar vocabulary items to be encountered in a text, even with definitions appropriate to their use in that text, does not guarantee the learning of the word or the concept behind the word, or of improved reading comprehension on the text passage Hudson To be effective, an extensive and long-term vocabulary development program accompanying a parallel schemata or background-knowledge-development program is probably called for.
Instead of preteaching vocabulary for single reading passages, teachers should teach vocabulary and background knowledge concurrently for sets of passages to be read at some later time. C- The Interactive Approach Rumelhart, Stanovich, Eskey For those reading theorists who recognized the importance of both the text and the reader in the reading process, an amalgamation of the two emerged the interactive approach.
Reading here is the process of combining textual information with the information the reader brings to a text. The interactive model Rumelhart ; Stanovich stresses both what is on the written page and what a reader brings to it using both top-down and bottom-up skills.
It views reading is the interaction between reader and text.Traditional Study Skills Approaches. The Traditional Genre Approach.
A Linguistic Approach: A Linguistic Approach to Reading and Writing What should we do to improve our reading and writing?
Traditional Study Skills Approaches Many writing courses stress study skills. An extended definition, however, goes beyond what can be found in a dictionary, offering an expanded analysis and illustration of a concept that may be abstract, controversial, unfamiliar, or .
As the purpose of the reading is to serve as a starting point for generating ideas and the writing process, I suggest that students select relatively easy readings, which are appropriate for their proficiency level.
Problem-based-learning approaches are a close cousin of project learning, in which students use complex problems and cases to actively build their knowledge.
Much of the research for this approach comes from medical education. Grand Valley State University [email protected] Masters Theses Graduate Research and Creative Practice A Literature-Based Approach to Reading.
This approach to teaching writing is specifically criticized by some advocates of the process approach in the L1 classroom; Applebee, for example, writes that "The process approach to writing instruction has been inadequately and improperly conceptualized, as a series of activities or steps in the writing .