See Article History Cathedral, in Christian churches that have an episcopal form of church government, the church in which a residential bishop has his official seat or throne, the cathedra.
Contact Introduction There are many good reasons for the student to study the history of stained glass; first, to truly excel, the student should be aware of the romance of the medium. Second, an appreciation of the history of stained glass will foster a dispassionate, critical approach in the student when appraising stained glass.
The student of stained glass is urged to approach the medium with an informed, non-prejudiced understanding of the various styles to be encountered. There are many excellent resources available for the study of stained glass and the student is urged to acquire a library of reference books that illustrate and describe specific installations in detail.
However, there is no substitute for actually viewing stained glass in situ; that is, in its architectural surroundings. A comprehensive bibliography follows this chapter.
Because this volume is intended as a reference of techniques for the stained glass artist and not as a history of the craft, this chapter should serve only as a starting point for the student who wishes to develop a deeper appreciation of the history of craft.
It should also be noted that there are many periods that are imperfectly documented. None of those studios exist today, and little is known about them. The legend recounts shipwrecked sailors who set their cooking pots on blocks of natron soda from their cargo then built a fire under it on the beach.
The resultant mass had cooled and hardened into glass. Today, though, it is thought that Pliny — though energetic in collecting material — was not very scientifically reliable. It is more likely that Egyptian or Mesopotamian potters accidentally discovered glass when firing their vessels.
The earliest known manmade glass is in the form of Egyptian beads from between and BC. Artisans made these beads by winding a thin string of molten glass around a removable clay core. This glass is opaque and very precious. A varied thickness adds to their nuances. Several pieces showed a right angle and traces of a grozer on the edge.
In the first century AD, the Romans glazed glass into windows.
They cast glass slabs and employed blowing techniques to spin discs and made cylinder glass. The glass was irregular and not very transparent.
One of the oldest known examples of multiple pieces of colored glass used in a window were unearthed at St. The oldest complete European windows found in situ are thought to be five relatively sophisticated figures in Augsburg Cathedral.
These five windows are no longer in their original setting. They have recently been moved into a museum and replaced with copies.
These five windows show fired glass painting which utilizes line and tonal shading and they are made of bright, varied colors of glass. Where are the children who are father to these men? Where are the earlier windows? Pieces of glass were either inserted into intricate pierced marble or stone, or glazed in plaster before the plaster had set hard.
Ribs of iron were often used to strengthen the plaster. Arabian filigree windows moved into Europe when the Moors entered Spain. As the fashion moved farther north into areas of more inclement weather, covering became more necessary.
This covering usually came in the form of slices of alabaster. In Europe, plates of pierced lead replaced the plaster grillwork.
The first of these had no glass in the decorative openings, but later small pieces of glass were attached using strings of lead. Traces of cold paint on glass have been found in the mid-east indicating that windows probably stood up better than those windows in damper climates.
In at Saint Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, the archaeologist Cecchelli dug up three glass fragments showing Christ with a cruciform nimbus standing between an alpha and omega painted with grisaille.
The word grisaille applies equally to vitrifiable glass paint, as well as a style of lightly toned window that has been painted and stained in a decorative pattern.
It is assumed these fragments date from approximately AD, the time of the construction of the building. In at a dig in a cemetery abandoned about AD at Sery les Mezieres, Aisne, France, Jules Pilloy found about 30 pieces of glass which had suffered from an apparent fire, a lead strip with two channels and a small slab of bone among some charred wood.
The bone which might have been a holy relic pre-dated Charlemagne. Edmond Socard arranged the glass into a small, simple window.
A cross patee, from which hung an alpha and omega, were painted and fired on it. This symbol was very popular from the sixth to ninth centuries.urbanagricultureinitiative.com is a leader in panoramic photography and virtual tours in Quebec and North America.
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Notre Dame de Paris Historical Facts and Pictures The historic Catholic cathedral, Notre Dame de Paris, also known as simply Notre-dame or Notre-Dame Cathedral, is located in the eastern part of the island Île de la Cité in the 4 th arrodissement of Paris.
Notre-Dame de Paris (French: [nɔtʁə dam də paʁi] (listen); meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
The cathedral is widely considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture. Notre-Dame de Paris Notre-Dame de Paris, also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.