Weimar Republic quotations This Weimar Republic quotations page houses a collection of quotations from or about the Weimar period, to
Marx's metaphorical use of the term "character masks" refers back to carnival masks and the masks used in classical Greek theatre.
At issue is the social form in which a practice is acted out. A sophisticated academic language for talking about the sociology of roles did not exist in the midth century.
Marx therefore borrowed from theatre and literature to express his idea. The nearest equivalent term in modern English for Marx's "character masks" is social masks. However, such a translation is not entirely satisfactory, for several reasons: A "social mask" is normally understood only as the mask of an individual, while Marx's concept of character masks has been applied by Marxists and non-Marxists to persons and politicians,  groups and social classesmass mediasocial movements and political partiessocial institutionsorganizations and functions, governments, symbolic expressions, historical eras, and dramatic, literary or theatrical contexts.
In each case, the suggestion is that matters present themselves other than they really are. The category of "social masks" is much more general and inclusive. With Marx's character masks, it is understood that they are bound up with a specific type of society at a specific historical time, and with a specific theory of how the social relations in that society function.
By contrast, the general concept of "social masks" assumes no specific theory, specific society or specific historical time; social masks of whatever form can be assumed to have existed forever and a day, and thus are treated as a more or less permanent part of the human condition.
People can also mask their behavior, or mask a situation, without being aware that they are doing so. What distinguishes false-consciousness from error or falsehood, and what motivates a particular kind of critique, of denunciation, is the possibility of signifying another thing than one believes was signified, that is, the possibility of the masked consciousness.
These two words, "false consciousness," pertain usually to Marx The task of hermeneutics It refers rather to an absence of awareness of what is really behind the ideas being worked with, how they have originated, or what the real role or effect of the ideas is. The first result of that is, that the ideologists believe themselves to be performing certain intellectual operations with regard to an issue, which, in reality, have quite a different significance than what they imagine.
The second result is that their intellectual creations can then function as a mask for what is really at stake, precisely because the issue is portrayed in a one-sided or distorted way — without the ideologists being aware of how that works.
The ideologists are aware and unaware at the same time.
The problem, says Engels, is that they exaggerate the power of ideas, even to the point where ideas seem to be the cause of all that happens.
This occurs especially if the intellectual productions occur at quite some distance from the practical context to which they properly refer, or if they concern specialized, highly abstract ideas which cannot easily be verified  Levels of masking[ edit ] Historical[ edit ] The "character masks of an era" refer, according to Marx and Engels, to its main symbolic expressions of self-justification or apologistthe function of which is to disguise, embellish or mystify social contradictions "the bits that do not fit".
A purported "mystical truth" in this context is a meaning which cannot be definitely proved, because it results from an abstract procedure or cognition which is not logical, and cannot be tested scientifically, only subjectively experienced.
A dominant power may legitimate itself by promoting beliefs and values congenial to it; naturalizing and universalizing such beliefs so as to render them self-evident and apparently inevitable; denigrating ideas which might challenge it; excluding rival forms of thought, perhaps by some unspoken but systematic logic; and obscuring social reality in ways convenient to itself.
Buyers and sellers compete with other buyers and sellers. Businesses cannot practically do so without confidentiality and secrecy. Workers compete for job opportunities and access to resources. Capitalists and workers compete for their share of the new wealth that is produced, and nations compete with other nations.
The masks are therefore not optional, but necessary, and the more one is able to know about others, the more subtle, ingenious and sophisticated the masks become. One of the centerpieces of Marx's critique of political economy is that the juridical labour contract between the worker and his capitalist employer obscures the true economic relationship, which is according to Marx that the workers do not sell their labor, but their labor powermaking possible a profitable difference between what they are paid and the new value they create for the owners of capital a form of economic exploitation.
Thus, the very foundation of capitalist wealth creation involves — as Marx says explicitly — a "mask". This is discovered, only when one probes the total context in which they occur. Vulgar economics actually does nothing more than to interpret, to systematize and turn into apologetics — in a doctrinaire way — the ideas of the agents who are trapped within bourgeois relations of production.
So it should not surprise us that, precisely within the estranged form of appearance of economic relations in which these prima facie absurd and complete contradictions occur — and all science would be superfluous if the form of appearance of things directly coincided with their essence — that precisely here vulgar economics feels completely at home, and that these relationships appear all the more self-evident to it, the more their inner interconnection remains hidden to it, even though these relationships are comprehensible to the popular mind  This implies another level of masking, because the economic character masks are then straightforwardly "vulgarly" equated with authentic behaviour.
The effect in this case is, that the theory of "how the economy works" masks how it actually works, by conflating its surface appearance with its real nature.
Its generalities seem to explain it, but in reality they do not. The theory is therefore ultimately arbitrary. Either things are studied in isolation from the total context in which they occur, or generalizations are formed which leave essential bits out.
Such distortion can certainly be ideologically useful to justify an economic systemposition or policy as a good thing, but it can become a hindrance to understanding.
Supposedly this is a " level playing field " but in reality it is not, simply because some command vastly greater resources than others. The attempt is made to "personalize" otherwise impersonal or anonymous market relationships expressed by transactions.The collapse of the Weimar Republic Essay examples - The collapse of the Weimar Republic 1) Explain why the Weimar Republic collapsed.
1) In January , the German voters, elected a national assembly to write a constitution. The assembly met in Weimar, and in August , the constitution established a democratic republic known as the Weimar.
Formal social control is the use of the law and ultimately force to control our urbanagricultureinitiative.com agencies of social control are those legally sanctioned bodies or organisations which set down the law and make sure that it is followed.. Agencies include the Houses of Parliament, where laws are debated and made.
The courts are used to decide whether an individual accused of a crime is guilty or not. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from urbanagricultureinitiative.com Aug 19, · No account of the Jewish Question in Germany can be complete without some mention of the tidal wave of sexual immorality that was to engulf the country during the period of the Weimar Republic () following World War One.
Weimar Germany still fascinates us, and now this complex and remarkably creative period and place has the history it deserves. Eric Weitz's Weimar Germany reveals the Weimar era as a time of strikingly progressive achievements--and even greater promise.
With a rich thematic narrative and detailed portraits of some of Weimar's greatest figures, this comprehensive history recaptures the. Do you agree that the collapse of Weimar Republic was inevitable? Elaborate your answer. I disagree that the collapse of Weimar Republic was inevitable. Weimar Republic was a democratic government created in after WWI.
The Republic just lasted 13 years. Weimar Republic inherited enormous problems from the previous government.