History[ edit ] In the s, connections between computing and radical art began to grow stronger. It was not until the s that Alan Kay and his co-workers at Xerox PARC began to give the computability of a personal computer to the individual, rather than have a big organization be in charge of this. Although causally unrelated, conceptually it makes sense that the Cold War and the design of the Web took place at exactly the same time.
However, the well-documented fundamental transformation of the education sector is prompting universities to reexamine two of their most unique assets—knowledge and research—in order to identify new sources of revenue and promote a culture of innovation that positions academia squarely within broader entrepreneurial ecosystems.
Whereas the task of monetizing innovation has historically been the remit of technology transfer offices TTOswhich have operated mostly in isolation as facilitators of a largely transactional process, this new mandate requires leadership that can bring a strategic, "whole of school" approach to fostering and reaping the benefits of university IP, as well as diffusing a culture of innovation across all aspects of university life.
Moving away from the transactional approach Over the last three decades, research universities have revamped their technology transfer capabilities in order to take advantage of patent system reforms. Over the past 25 years, more than 84, U.
Entrepreneurship has always been present on campuses, but the internet bubble of the s helped foster a new generation of entrepreneurs. The growing interest in entrepreneurship among faculty and students represents an opportunity for universities to foster and leverage entrepreneurial activities more.
At the same time, the higher education sector is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Major challenges include declining government and grant funding, rising costs, increasing competition from nontraditional education, calls to "prove the ROI" and a shift in philosophy as to how students learn best, leading to a growing emphasis on immersive, experiential, peer-to-peer learning.
As institutions grapple with these new realities, some universities have had to reconsider how to best deliver their core products, learning and curriculum. Considering the profound impact of these changes, academic institutions have strong incentives to identify new revenue sources and stimulate innovation across the entire school community and break down silos that may exist.
The emergence of the chief innovation officer While many academic institutions understand the need for diversifying funding and maximizing revenues from innovation, only a few universities have responded so far by prioritizing technology commercialization and innovation and entrepreneurial support as a system beyond traditional TTOs and entrepreneurship hubs and initiatives.
Recognizing the opportunity to reap more revenues from innovation and acknowledging that TTOs are just one component of the innovation and commercialization ecosystem, academic institutions are increasingly moving to create new leadership positions that are tasked with stimulating innovation across the entire campus, establishing innovation ecosystems to nurture entrepreneurial efforts and, ultimately, to maximize revenues from innovation.
Their remit is to foster and commercialize innovation across departments, establish strategic partnerships, and work toward an innovation-driven academic and non-academic culture. For example, the California Institute of Technology has created a chief innovation and corporate partnerships officer role.
The University of California, Office of the President has taken on a senior vice president for research, innovation and entrepreneurship, while Cornell Tech has appointed a chief entrepreneurial officer. University medical centers also follow the trend and have started to create new positions to direct commercialization and spin-off activities of medical breakthrough innovations.
For example, the Cleveland Clinic recently appointed its first managing director of ventures, who will oversee the 77 spin-off companies in the organization's portfolio. Driving innovation at the University of North Carolina: For faculty, this can mean help in balancing the need to pursue research grants and the time needed to turn ideas into marketable applications.
This latter role is particularly useful in preparing the next generation of entrepreneurs: Prior to joining UNC, Cone served as vice president of emerging strategies and entrepreneurship at the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, where she led many of the foundation's signature education and entrepreneurship initiatives and programs.
Defining the new leadership role As expected with new functions, the precise title and responsibilities of the "chief innovator" role vary significantly from school to school. However, despite the differences, several commonalities can be identified: Owing to the mandate to stimulate innovation across all departments, leaders in this role normally sit outside of—but adjacent to—the typical academic infrastructure, reporting directly to the president or provost to ensure close collaboration.
Strategic rather than transactional: In contrast to the rather transactional remit of technology transfer offices, this role is strategic and aims at driving and maximizing revenues from innovation by: Building, enhancing and growing an innovation ecosystem across all university departments, improving entrepreneurial capabilities, and providing services normally associated with business incubators to stimulate innovation Actively engaging with potential partners in government, finance mainly private equity and venture capitalbusiness, philanthropy and the scientific community to promote investment in research and innovation and to link entrepreneurs to potential funders Increasing discovery outcomes by encouraging multidisciplinary and multidepartment collaborations Linking university ventures to outside business incubators Fostering an entrepreneurial and innovative culture across the department On the innovation path In an environment of declining funding, increased competition and technological transformation, higher education institutions are forced to reevaluate and rethink their existing business models.
The general agreement that the traditional model of licensing technology has significant limitations underlines the need to reform the current commercialization model and become better at capitalizing on the unique asset that universities have: Combined with a growing interest in entrepreneurial activities, current industry dynamics represent an opportunity for universities to prioritize innovation across the system, whether through technology commercialization, new partnerships or increased research funding.
A few universities, becoming aware of this opportunity, have started to create new leadership positions focused on establishing an innovation-led academic culture. It is too early to tell to what extent this model will be successful for universities.Online Games: Literature, New Media, and Narrative from Vanderbilt University.
Intended for both newcomers who are curious about video games and experienced gamers who want to reflect on their passion, this course will explore what happens to. Jesse Ash Director / Producer Jesse Ash is a principal and lead producer at Greener Media.
Over the past 7 years he's helped develop Greener Media as a social enterprise, producing & directing videos with great organizations such as: the New York Restoration Project, Cancer & Careers, the Sustainable South Bronx, Greenpeace Australia, GrowNYC, and New York Cares to name a few.
Chapter 8. Media and Technology Ron McGivern. suggest the emergence of a new divide. As technological devices gets smaller and more mobile, larger percentages of minority groups are using their phones to connect to the internet.
core nations such as Canada have seen the use of international media such as the internet circumvent .
Abroad, horse and foot races were sports of choice for improving a person's leisure hours. Indoors, a game of cards or billiards, seen here in an eighteenth-century English print by Henry Bunbury, prompted friendly competition at the local tavern. What's New About New Media?
In a work on new media, terms such as media, culture, As James Lastra shows, it is one of two tropes that have played a normalizing role in the emergence of modern media (the other is that of inscription); Sound Technology and the American Cinema.
Home page slide show images are from the new book "Emergence Christianity" by Phyllis Tickle. Photo credits: Richard Anderson, Becky Garrison, Elizabeth Harlan, Jaimi Kercher, Courtney Perry.